Roorkee is a city and municipal council located in the state of Uttarakhand, India. It is also known as Roorkee Cantonment and is one of the oldest cantonments in the country and is the headquarters of the Bengal Engineering Group (Bengal Sappers) since 1853.


The city is situated on the banks of the Ganga Canal on National Highway 58 between Dehradun and Delhi.


Roorkee got its name from Ruri / Rudi, who was the wife of Gujar Sardar and was also spelled ‘Ruri Ki’ earlier. Local-speaking villagers believe that it got its name from “Roaron’s” ie Roar’s residence.



View Early Political and Administrative History of Roorkee

Roorkee is first mentioned in British inscriptions. According to British records, in the 18th century, it is used to be a village of raw houses, buildings built from the mud of the pond on the west bank of the Solani River, there was no paved house or building here.

At that point, this village was administratively a neighborhood of the Landaura princely state of Panwar (Parmar) Gurjars of the erstwhile Saharanpur district, which was formerly the Jhabrera State.

Taking advantage of the political instability arising after the death of Gurjar king Ramdayal Singh Panwar of Landaura in 1813, British displayed an outsized a part of the princely state in the land records, giving many food and food out of the princely state, including Roorkee, and gave them out of the British rule.

Thus, in 1813, it came fully under British rule. HR Neville writes in 1908 that the upper Doab of the Ganga Yamuna, and especially the Saharanpur district was ruled by Gujjars until the beginning of this century (20th century) was actually known as ‘Gujarat’.

Establishment of Roorkee Tehsil

Around 1826, the headquarters of Jwalapur tehsil of Saharanpur district was shifted from Jwalapur to Roorkee and after the Jawalpur tahsil was abolished, Rudki alongside Parganas was transferred to a Joint Magistrate rank officer and a treasury officer and Tehsildar was appointed. With this, SDM Housing, Treasury, Tehsildar Housing was also constructed at Roorkee.

Municipal Board was established in Roorkee Nagar within the year 1869.

Establishment of Roorkee Cantonment and Bengal Sappers

A small military cantonment in 1803 AD at Roorkee village, 10 km west of Landaura, to weaken the ever-increasing power of Gurjaro’s Ganga-Yamuna Doab under the British as well as bringing the Ruhelas of Najibabad area under their control. Established. 

Which was utilized in 1824, under the leadership of Taluka of Gujjar-Saharanpur and Talukedar Chaudhary Vijay Singh of Gujjar Fort Kunja Bahadurpur, referred to as Raja Vijay Singh, the primary freedom struggle fought under his leadership, which was known as ‘Gurjar Kranti’ of 1824 Is, which had wide support from the local people as well as the princely states and zamindars of Doab and Haryana?

After this suppression, the British authorities gave this place a place in the government documents and records in the name of the “Gujar Rebellion” of 1824 and in the revolution of 1857 to crush the fierce revolts by Gujjars, Rungdo and peasants of Gujarat Saharanpur. Gaya.

Bengal Sappers and Minors was established here on November 07, 1853. The revolution proved its ability and importance in maintaining peace in the region. Along with this, the army’s infantry regiment remained stationed in Rurki Cantonment for a long period, which was later replaced by two companies of the Army Artillery “Royal Garrison Artillery” (Heavy Batteries of Artillery).

Infrastructure Development

After fully controlling the political instability and unrest created by the revolts and struggles for independence by the people and peasants of the region, given the importance of Rurki, its structural development efforts began during which the development of the historic Ganganhar and therefore the Roorkee Engineering College The establishment was prominent.

In April 1842, excavations were started for the development of Gangnahar under the leadership of British officer Sir Probe Kotle and in 1845-46 the canal workshop and foundry forge were established along the canal for the development and maintenance of Gangnahar. Which set a new pace for the development of Rudki’s structural rejuvenation.

Construction work of Roorkee Ganganahar was completed in 1854 AD and it had been started on April 08, 1854, which irrigates about 767000 acres of land in about 5000 villages and water in the stones and Mohammedpur villages of Haridwar district of Uttarakhand state. Electricity generation is also being done by constructing powerhouses.

Pride to operate India’s first train

 India's first train in Roorkee
India’s first train in Roorkee

Based on old documents found from IIT Roorkee’s archives and Roorkee railway station, it has been a new discovery that during the excavation of Roorkee canal, the problems and problems in the transportation of soil and freight The first two coaches of the country were run by steam locomotives (freight trains) in the state of Roorkee for the transportation of soil and freight. The track was run by laying tracks between and Piran Collier. Later, the need for a railway track was not felt due to engine failure and canal construction, so the track was uprooted after the canal was built and the engine was sent back to England. Later a replica of that first steam locomotive in the country was re-imported from England and kept at Roorkee railway station, which is run on coal steam every Saturday.

 India's first train in Roorkee
India’s first train in Roorkee

This was followed by the first passenger train from Mumbai to Thane in 1853. The above discovery was done very late in the year 2002 due to which Rudki could not get the pride of operating the first train in the country.

Establishment of historic Thomson College and University of Roorkee

IIT Roorkee (Thomson College and University of Roorkee)
IIT Roorkee (Thomson College and University of Roorkee)

A ‘Civil Engineering Training School’ was established in 1845 to provide technical assistance of engineers and laborers engaged in Ganganhar construction and training of Indian youth in engineering. During the construction of the Gangnahar project in 1847, the need for more skilled trained engineers was felt for which the Engineering Training School was converted into a college on 25 November 1847. But this college actually started functioning lawfully from January 1, 1848, and became the first engineering college in Asia and India to be established in the British colony as the “Roorkee College of Civil Engineering”.

Since the founder of this college was the Lieutenant-Governor of the North-Western Province of India (North-West Provinces of India) from 1843 to 1853, “Sir James Thomson”, on whose proposal the Engineering College was founded in 1847, was therefore After his death on 21 September 1853, Roorkee Engineering College was renamed in 1854 to “Thomson College of Civil Engineering, Roorkee” in his honor. Which remained until 1948.

After independence, in the year 1948, the United Provinces Government passed Act No. IX and conferred university status on it. Then in November 1949, Jawaharlal Nehru Roorkee, the first Prime Minister of India, came to Roorkee, who gave the status of the first engineering university in India by chartering this institution in view of the need and importance in infrastructure development, services for nation-building. Further enhanced and dedicated it to the nation for nation-building. Thus India’s first technical university ‘The University of Roorkee’ (University of Roorkee) came into existence in 1949.

On 21 September 2001, bypassing a law in Parliament declaring Roorkee University as “Institute of National Importance”, the Government of India recognized it as the 07th Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) in the country.


Roorkee 29.87 ° N 77.88 ° E. Is located on the latitudes of Its height is 268.9 meters above sea level. It is located at the foothills of the Himalayas, between the Ganges and Yamuna rivers, 182 km north of the national capital Delhi. It was a part of Uttar Pradesh before Uttarakhand became a state on November 7, 2000.


Roorkee is geographically very volatile and unstable due to being geographically away from any major reservoir and close to the Himalayas. The summer season starts from the peak of March which lasts till July and the average temperature is 280 C. lives.

The monsoon season lasts from July to October and the monsoon clouds receive heavy rainfall due to the Himalayan recoil.

The post-monsoon season starts from October and continues till the end of November when the average temperature is 210 C.

From 150 cm Heats up to The winter season begins in December when the minimum temperature reaches the freezing point due to the descending winds from the Himalayas. The total annual rainfall is up to 102 inches.


Roorkee comes under the Northern Railway Zone and is connected by rail to major cities of the country. The nearest airport is Jolly Grant, which is in Dehradun, but Delhi Indira Gandhi International Airport is preferred.  

The major major cities near Roorkee are Dehradun, Haridwar, Rishikesh, Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, Meerut, Ambala and Chandigarh. National Highway 58 (NH 58) (Delhi – Haridwar – Mana Pass) and NH 43 (Panchkula / Chandigarh – Yamuna Nagar – Roorkee) go through Roorkee.


Based on the 2001 census, Roorkee has a population of 2,52.6 of which males are 53% and females 6%.

Roorkee has a mean literacy rate of 62%, above the national average of 4%: male literacy is 4% and feminine literacy is 61%. 11% of the population is under 6 years aged.

In this city Hindus are 41%, Muslims are 26%, Sikhs / Punjabis are 7%, Jains are 2.7% and Christians are 0.3%.  

With a total population of 2,52,4, it is the third-largest municipal corporation in Uttarakhand after Haridwar and Haldwani. The major languages ​​are Hindi, Punjabi, and Urdu.


IIT Roorkee
IIT Roorkee

The oldest institute of technology in the country is also located in Roorkee which is known as IIT Roorkee.

Source- Wikipedia

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